Europe’s population during the 1920’s, ’30’s, and 40’s was approximately 95% Christian. Clearly, anti-Judaism, the Church’s 1900 plus year doctrine of animus against Jews, contributed to the culpability, complicity, and indifference of so many, many Europeans, both before and during the Holocaust. The following letter of complaint to Reich authorities from Mrs. Eleonore Gusenbauer of Ried, a village in Austria near Mauthausen, written in September, 1941, for example, demonstrates…..
Ecclesiology is the study and theory of what constitutes the Church. Cardinal Avery Robert Dulles, author of Models of Church, characterized the Council of Trent (medieval) paradigm (or model) of church as institutional /hierarchical, symbolized as a pyramid. This model defined the Church until Vatican Council II in 1965…..
Pius XII died on October 9, 1958, ending his nineteen-year reign as pope. On October 28, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, archbishop of Venice, was elected, to his great surprise, to be Pius’ successor (the presumed frontrunner candidate was Giovanni Montini, archbishop of Milan, who would become Pope Paul VI in…..