Three anti-Jewish myths and libels generated during the Middle Ages incited violence against Jews, namely, ritual murder/blood libel; host desecration; and Black Death.
Ritual Murder/Blood Libel
In 1144, an unfounded rumor circulated in England that Jews had kidnapped a Christian child from the town of Norwich, tied him to a cross, stabbed his head to simulate Jesus’ crown of thorns, killed him, drained his body of blood, and…..
St. Pope Pius X (1903–14), born Giuseppe Sarto, vigorously prosecuted Pius IX’s war against Modernism, which targeted, among other things, liberalism, rationalism, communism, socialism, democracy, religious tolerance, freedom of conscience, separation of church and state, freedom of religion, speech and press. Modernists argued that church doctrine…..